Indo-China was ruled by various kingdoms. These were the mysterious Champa kingdoms which built the amazing Angkor Wat complex. The Yuan Dynasty, ruled by Kublai Khan, made forays into Annam and Cambodia. The tragic history of this region was enmeshed in numerous bitter wars of invasions which have destroyed much of the recorded documentation of the past.


Culturally, the whole region is dominated by Buddhism, but this is manifested in vastly different representations and iconography among the various cultures. Stylistically, the Champa and Siamese kingdoms were heavily influenced by Hindu culture from the South whereas the Annamese kingdoms were more influenced by the Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties of China. 



             Chinese Emperor costumes                                                  Qing Dynasty costumes

Ancient Warrior Vol 1:Winter 94/95, Montvert Publications


This can be seen in later Annamese period photos on court costumes which appear to be predominantly yellow. The court robes have wide voluminous sleeves typical of Ming style but have heavy overall embroidery of dragons, clouds and water motifs more typical of Qing court robes. Court officials appear to wear a surcoat with mandarin squares over Vietnamese wide trousers.


Hmong native woman

with long hair coiled into a bun